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  • Issue 21
  • Issue 20
  • Issue 19
  • Issue 18
  • Issue 17
  • Issue 16
  • Issue 15
  • Issue 14
  • Issue 13
  • Issue 12
  • Issue 11
  • Issue 10
  • Issue 9
  • Issue 8
  • Issue 7
  • Issue 6
  • Issue 5
  • Issue 4
  • Issue 3
  • Issue 2
  • Issue 1

Editorial Issue 21: The Role of Excellence in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)

Excellence in education can have different forms and definitions: while some understand vocational excellence as synonymous with high-quality TVET, others see excellence in providing learners with skills and abilities which guarantee employment through their labour market relevance. Excellence can also be achieved by adapting TVET programmes to current megatrends such as digitalization, Industry 4.0, artificial intelligence and environmental sustainability. Another definition might include the role of vocational excellence for achieving resilience of TVET systems vis-à-vis societal challenges, such as the demographic transition, migration or unemployment. In order for excellent TVET providers to address these challenges, one needs to find out how to identify and promote the drivers of vocational excellence.

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Editorial Issue 20: Governance of TVET in the Era of Digitalization and Sustainable Development

Full issue 20 Governance of TVET is a major issue and precondition for the ongoing development of TVET systems, especially in the era of digitalization and sustainable development. In the 2010 Guidelines for TVET Policy Review, UNESCO defines TVET Governance as being “concerned with how the funding, provision, ownership and regulation of TVET systems are coordinated, which actors are involved, and what are their respective roles and responsibilities, and level of formal competence – at the local, regional, national and supranational level.”

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Editorial Issue 19: Digitalisation in TVET – New Forms of Learning for the Future of Work

Full issue 19 Governance of TVET is a major issue and precondition for the ongoing development of TVET systems, especially in the era of digitalization and sustainable development. In the 2010 Guidelines for TVET Policy Review, UNESCO defines TVET Governance as being “concerned with how the funding, provision, ownership and regulation of TVET systems are coordinated, which actors are involved...

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Editorial Issue 18: Self-reliant learning by implementing work-based and work-related learning approaches 

Full issue 18 Whereas the demand for highly qualified personnel is constantly increasing, the lack of adequate and appropriate qualification measures that foster self-reliant learning competence is evident. Additionally, in today’s complex world of work and lean forms of work organization, requirements not only include professional competences but also further dimensions such as social and personal competencies (e.g. teamwork, communication, creativity, problem solving etc.). In order to address these challenges, limiting TVET to theory-based and input-oriented learning is insufficient – rather it needs to be intertwined with experience-based, experiential and informal learning in real work situations.

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Editorial Issue 17:  Self-reliant learning by implementing work-based and work-related learning approaches 

Full issue 17 Whereas the demand for highly qualified personnel is constantly increasing, the lack of adequate and appropriate qualification measures that foster self-reliant learning competence is evident. Additionally, in today’s complex world of work and lean forms of work organization, requirements not only include professional competences but also further dimensions such as social and personal competencies (e.g. teamwork, communication, problem solving etc.). In order to address these challenges, limiting TVET to theory-based and input-oriented learning is insufficient – rather it needs to be intertwined with experience-based, experiential and informal learning in real work situations.

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Editorial Issue 16: TVET Teacher Training for the Future of Work and Learning

Full issue 16 TVET personnel – teachers and trainers in companies, vocational schools and other educational contexts – are crucial for enhancing and assuring the quality of vocational education and training. Yet vocational teacher education has been facing challenges over the past few decades. Whereas the need for qualified TVET personnel is indisputable, many countries face a severe shortage of qualified TVET personnel and have therefore implemented various pathways to enter this profession. However, these personnel need to be equipped with future-oriented competencies to provide action-oriented and work-based learning. They also need to be broadly diversified and multi-professional, and able to bridge the gap between vocational theory and practice (Lipsmeier 2013). They also need to develop the specific competences required to integrate learners from different educational, social and cultural backgrounds.

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Editorial Issue 15: TVET research as a central factor for the development of TVET systems

Full issue 15 VET research is an essential factor in the development of TVET systems. Research provides information and advice on TVET policy depending on the needs, focusses and research areas. In addition, TVET research contributes to innovation and the transfer of knowledge in cooperation with TVET practitioners. TVET research always has to take the changes in work and the analysis and design of vocational education and training as well as qualification and learning processes into consideration. Thus, TVET research aims to contribute to the further development of the vocational education and training system. Despite the relevance of TVET for social and economic development worldwide, the international TVET research community is at the beginning and still has much potential for development. International TVET research also presents itself to be an interdisciplinary approach and addresses a wide range of issues and development tasks at various levels.

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Editorial Issue 14: Preparing TVET Personnel to Achieve Sustainable Development Goals – Objectives, Concepts, and Experiences

Full issue 14 Sustainable development goals (SDGs) cannot be achieved without human resource development (HRD) combined with capacity building for communities. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by United Nations members in 2015, highlights the need for protection, peace and prosperity for all ‘actants’ on the planet. It calls for an end to poverty and all deprivations by developing sustainable strategies to ensure food, shelter, financial independence, health, education and freedom are available to all.  However, these goals cannot be achieved without preserving the planet's eco-systems and mitigating for climate change. Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET), both formal and non-formal, is one of the key vehicles for supporting HRD for the purposes of individual and collective well-being. From this perspective, TVET can become a catalyst for the social and economic transformation of communities and economies for the purposes of achieving SDGs targets.

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Editorial Issue 13: Dual TVET systems, Employer Engagement and Modern Apprenticeship Schemes

Full issue 13 The development of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) systems in Asia and worldwide increasingly aims at strengthening the cooperation between the formal TVET system, which is often represented by state-run vocational schools and colleges, and employers, who provide work-based learning at the in-company workplace, which is sometimes enhanced through work-oriented learning in practical training centers. Hence, the Dual System acts as a kind of meta-concept for the practical implementation of a variety of practical and systemic related programs in the TVET sector such as the new apprenticeship program that gained attention in recent years. As a consequence many different kinds of dual systems were established across countries, which sometimes even differ within one country as it is the case in Germany for example.

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Editorial Issue 12: Technical Didactics as a Theoretical Basis for an Effective Practical Implementation of TVET

Full issue 12 Anyone who teaches within a specific technical field must deal with specific knowledge of technology: its functions, its use and the vocational activities deriving from the respective area. However, this alone is not sufficient. Additionally, pedagogical-didactic considerations need to be conducted. Therefore, the question arises: who are the learners and what is the purpose of the educational program? Additionally, the following issues need to be addressed: −      What is the need of the target groups with respect to the individual learners´ age and corresponding development phase (see Piaget)? −      How far along is the learner in terms of his/her skills and competence development i.e. is the learner a novice or an expert (Dreyfus/Dreyfus 1980)? −      Does the educational program address engineering programs in Higher Education or TVET programs that rather focus on work-tasks and work-processes? Didactics of technology or technical vocational disciplines must recognize the differences in approaches with different prerequisites for the learner or in relation to the objectives, and turn it into a meaningful Concept. 

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Editorial Issue 11: Curriculum Development for TVET – Various Approaches

Full issue 11 As a result of the decades long discussions about approaches of curricula development for TVET completely different perspectives have emerged. Above all the discussion on academic subject matters for different courses, concepts, articulation, and contextualisation of curricula or standard-based curricula are in the focus of interest. Curricula approaches, however, can not only be closely linked to learning theories - such as the constructivist learning principles and others. Curricula approaches might also give an orientation along the established and rather formal classifications of curricula such as learner-centred curricula approaches, spiral curricula approaches, the action-based learning approach etc. Furthermore, the design and the development of curricula - based on research - is an important issue for the establishment of suitable curriculum approaches that supports the development of quality in TVET and is matching the demands of the society and the labour market.

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Editorial Issue 10: Informal Learning of Vocational Competences and Skills: Theoretical and practical perspectives

Full issue 10 Formation of vocational competencies and skills is an important economic, political, and educational issue in many countries. Beside the formal TVET-system, informal learning takes place in many forms and has an important impact. In some countries, informal learning covers entirely the major part of vocational learning activities. In other countries, informal learning is being integrated into formal TVET-systems or being enriched by non-formal learning. Furthermore, the accreditation of prior experiential learning (APEL) and validation of informal leaning is a field of continuous development, especially for highly formal TVET-systems and in Higher Education.

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Editorial Issue 9: Enhancement of Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) through cooperation of TVET Institutions, Companies, and Universities

Full issue 9 ASEAN has gradually developed into an increasingly dynamic and competitive region economically. TVET aims to prepare learners for a labour market and society persistently undergoing rapid change. As a result, Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) has to develop its objectives, systems and didactical concepts further. It is widely anticipated that the involvement of industry in TVET will lead to an improved and advanced quality of TVET programmes. This, in turn, is directly related to the modern requirements of the labour market and specific concepts of workplace orientated learning. Furthermore, new didactical approaches explore and develop the workplace as a learning venue that aims at goal-oriented competence development. The successful organization of modern learning arrangements in TVET and beyond depends on a close cooperation and coordination of the various learning environments.

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Editorial Issue 8: TVET Quality Improvement Initiatives in the Wake of ASEAN Economic Community 2015

Full issue 8 The year 2015 marks the beginning of ASEAN Economic Community, which is affecting the lives of 622 Million people and creating the third largest economy in Asia. TVET is the educational sector that vastly contributes towards the quality of living and societal development. Regional TVET systems need to continuously develop and readjust to a changing environ­ment in globalized competition on national and regional level. Relevant issues such as emerging TVET programmes, readjustment of curriculum contents, quality assurance, labor market information, recognition of qualifications across country and region, and sustainability are some areas that need special attention. 

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Editorial Issue 7: Quality Assurance as Basis of Trust and Labour Market Relevance of TVET Qualifications

Full issue 7 The recommendation to create quality assurance guidelines to recognize qualifications based on learning outcomes was made at the 3rd International Congress on TVET which took place in Shanghai in 2012. Quality assurance is fundamental to the TVET system in general and with regards to qualifications, and is of particular relevance at this time as many countries in the global village are developing and implementing NQFs. As Asia moves towards greater socio-economic integration, mutual recognition of qualifications and their quality assurance is becoming increasingly important. Countries that have developed National Qualification Frameworks (NQF) are now shifting attention to their implementation including through the establishment of quality assurance mechanisms which are the foundation for mutual trust, relevance and recognition across borders.

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Editorial Issue 6: The Greening of Technical and Vocational Education and Training

Full issue 6 The importance of building ecologically sound economies (greening) in order to address climate change and other pressing environmental issues is widely acknowledged by govern­ments around the world. A notable example is the recently held 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris/France where 195 countries adopted the first universal climate change agreement. Although the outcome of the conference, the Paris Agreement, requires ratification by national governments, it demonstrates the strong will of the attending nations to address the pressing issue of climate change, to adopt the outcomes to their own legal systems and to sign the agreement.

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Editorial Issue 5: Approaches and achievements in TVET personnel professional development

Full issue 5 Vocational teacher education is a relevant field of continuous development in Asia and in other world regions. Concepts, initiatives and declarations on the professional development of TVET personnel have frequently been issued by relevant stakeholders at a number of signifi­cant international meetings. Among them are the following: Ten years ago the UNESCO International Meeting on Innovation and Excellence in TVET Teacher/Trainer Education was held in Hangzhou, China. This meeting recom­mended developing TVET into an internationally acknowledged scientific community in order to professionalize TVET teacher/trainer education and to integrate TVET as sustainable, reproductive and innovative scientific systems in national approaches to innovation. To implement TVET Teacher Education study programs at the Masters level were considered one of the necessary steps. The First World Congress on Teacher Education for Technical and Vocational Educa­tion and Training held in 2008 in Bandung, Indonesia reaffirmed this request by recommending that TVET teacher/trainer education should encompass “studies in the analysis, design and evaluation of (a) vocational learning, educational and qualifica­tion processes, (b) occupational work and business processes, (c) technology as an object of work and learning processes, and (d) critical pedagogy for social change”. The Bandung declaration in addition asked for the establishment of “frameworks for promoting the continuing professional development of TVET practitioners”, a request implicitly included in the Hangzhou declaration.

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Editorial Issue 4: Mitigating TVET quality and standards as a basis for harmonising its systems at the national and regional levels

Full issue 4 East and Southeast Asia are experiencing a rapid pace of economic development that call for continuous review of education and training systems. TVET reform processes at the national and regional levels are addressing the question of quality and standards. During the past decades a vast variety of different approaches in TVET were developed or introduced. These approaches were often inspired through transfer or adoption from other regions of the world. In consequence, a vast variety of TVET-systems were implemented in different countries in the region and may require continues review and adaptation. Some states have no coherent national TVET-system with a common underlying concept of quality. A vast variety of TVET approaches consequently employ different concepts of quality and quality management in TVET.

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Editorial Issue 3: Transferable skills in technical and vocational education and training (TVET) and vocational teacher education (VTE): Policies and implementation

Full issue 3 It is widely acknowledged that the world of work is changing. Technical and vocational education and training (TVET), however, largely continues to follow a traditional model developed in the 19th century which used to prepare youth for industrial work. As some economies in the Asia-Pacific are becoming knowledge-based, there is growing recognition of the mismatch between skills taught in TVET and skills needed in the labour markets. As a result, transferable skills are increasingly seen as a missing link between education and training and the world of work. But what are transferable skills? There are different understandings and conceptualizations of these skills across countries but in general transferable skills refer to a number of important competencies (communication, problem-solving, collaboration skills, etc.) that can be learned and can help people to make transitions between education levels, education and the world of work, as well as within and between sectors. They are non-occupation specific skills that can give workers the comparative advantage in an increasingly interconnected and competitive world of work. 

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Editorial Issue 2: Vocational teacher education and research as a task and challenge for the East- and Southeast Asian region

Full issue 2 East and Southeast Asia are in the process of experiencing a period of outstanding economic growth and extraordinarily dynamic development and in view of the political regionalisation process achieving a common market by 2015 it should be lent a significant degree of additional momentum. To sustain the rapid development and face the challenges caused by the structural changes of economies, those societies involved will be depending on a highly skilled workforce and thus on functioning TVET-systems to meet both economic and societal demands. TVET-systems are in a process of permanent adaptation to the socioeconomic environment, which leads to an all-round increase and improvement of praxis-orientation in teaching-learning processes. It is evident that the sole employment of the traditional “chalk-and-talk” method in teacher-centred educational settings, does not produce the required workforce.

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Editorial Issue 1: Collaboration in TVET

Full issue 1 In view of the immense importance technical and vocational education and training (TVET) holds for social and economic development, one can simply never underestimate the significance of the collaboration between all stakeholders at all levels in this process. Learners can only be introduced into their professional community of practice during their education and training phase when given the opportunity to learn at authentic, real workplaces in close contact to their future peers. For several years workplace learning has been high on the TVET agenda in many countries worldwide, not only serving the learners but also the companies, by giving them the inestimably valuable opportunity to become acquainted with their future employees in advance of actually hiring them and in addition being able to shape both their education and training. In determining what should be learnt, in terms of developing curricula, a share of that input must come from the corporate sector, for one of the significant roles of TVET is to prepare a skilled workforce for the economy. Vocational teachers must have access to the world of work simply to be able to find out what it is that their students should learn in the here and now.

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