Indonesia’s large workforce is both a chance and a challenge. As a strategy against the skill mismatch between labour supply and demand, the government continues its efforts to increase school participation rates and invests in school infrastructure. As new industries develop and national and international labour mobility increases, graduates of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) need competencies that can be applied in changing work contexts. In 2012, the Indonesian Qualification Framework was introduced as a starting point for competency-based education and training in Indonesia. The question now is how to ultimately transfer these targets into teaching practice.