Apprenticeship has rarely received so much attention as it is getting now. Faced with persistently high levels of youth unemployment and great demand for economic development, the governments of many countries have (re)discovered the benefits that apprenticeship can bring and attempt to revive and expand apprenticeship of their own. The Chinese government is now trying to address the skill shortage and the market mismatch of supply and demand in manufacturing and high technology sectors by policy transfer and grope for the right road to a Modern Apprenticeship with Chinese characteristics.