The concept and execution of skills-based vocational training in Pakistan starts with policy documents and ends with the completion of a certificate which is nationally recognized. In the current situation of the TVET sector in Pakistan, the CBT philosophy is introduced by the TVET Reform Support Programme, which defines the role of the instructor as one pivotal success factor. Non availability of CBT&A trained instructors can be a pitfall for CBT intervention. There is a huge need of capacity building of instructional staff as per the need of CBT philosophy. Lack of knowledge between the conventional system of training and CBT model has created the gap, which is one major factor responsible for not producing the required output. This paper concentrates on investigating and analysing the dire need of encompassing the technical didactics and their implication for augmenting the CBT approach in Pakistan. Beauty Therapy, which is on top of the list of popular vocational trades in Pakistan, is taken into consideration to develop this paper. It will reflect on the potential positive impact of pedagogical and didactic training by capitalizing the true spirit of TVET. The proposed training will not only focus on the areas of the curriculum but will also enhance assessors’ working knowledge of the latest industry required tools, equipment, and machinery in the beauty sector, which shall further help learners to perform better and meet industry expectations. This paper aims at addressing issues relating to the desired didactics and technical simulations, which could form the basis of an effective TVET in the selected trade. It also portrays the process of training benefits and its potential outcomes for implementation of best TVET teaching practices
1 Techncal Didactics and TVET
Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) system plays an important role in a nation’s social and economic development. VTE acts as forces that bring about change in our schools, economy and to the whole society. Everyday VTE faces new challenges and opportunities because of the globalization and changing trends in communities. Ensuring VET’s relevance and value in increasingly global economy is main area of focus for its Stakeholders.
Didactics (as defined in Oxford Dictionary) means “the science, art, or practice of teaching”, the intention of teaching, “particularly in having moral instruction as an ulterior motive”. It’s a theory of teaching, and in a wider sense, a theory and practical application of teaching and learning.
Developing skills of a learner that matches workplace requirements is major responsibility of Technical and Vocational Education & Training (TVET). Since the core purpose is to ensure that training is industry focused, the perspective of augmenting the learning and training process with implication of the technical didactics and enhancement of contemporary market practices in the curriculum at both Theoretical level as well as Practical level highly promises an effectively practical implementation of TVET. The application of didactics at theoretical level will require the upgraded knowledge of the field of study, whereas its practical level application will demand for a deep understanding of the curricular activities, especially in the context of CBT (Competency Based Training) programmes. Both are equally significant for TVET instructional staff. Incorporation of both levels of didactics can provide opportunities to assessors in raising higher training standards and enabling trainees to know and perform even better.
2 CBT (Competency Based Training)
Competency Based Training (CBT) is an industrial and demand driven (outcomes-based) education and training programme based on well-defined industry generated standards (occupational standards). The curriculum, learning material and assessment are designed and developed based on industry standards which is different from programme to programme. CBT programmes provide a learner with not only knowledge but also the skills that are required to do a specific job in workplace, in other words hands on experience. For the completion of training programmes, the learner demonstrates necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes or values to be successful in the working environment.Each competency dictates precisely what a worker should be able to do to perform a task in workplace. A competency-based training approach is therefore to show the skills that are really needed in the workplace.
“A key approach in VET system designed to facilitate the required changes and improves the relevance of training and quality of skills is competency-based training (CBT). The aim of CBT is to ensure that the skills delivered by the training systems match the skills needed by industry in the immediate and longer term” (Keating, 2008).
2.1 Advantages of CBT&A
The CBT system comprises five key elements according to Norton (1987). The following are the five key elements a) Announce all skills to the public in advance that are to be achieved after careful identification and verification, b) Criteria and conditions to be used in assessing achievement should be provided to the public in advance, c) For all specified skills the individual development and evaluation must be provided in the instructional programme, d) Participant’s skill assessment not only requires actual performance as a primary means but also takes into account overall knowledge and attitudes of the participant and e) Participants for each specified skill progress at their own pace through the instructi
2.2 CBT&A:Adoption andapplication in Pakistan
Pakistan’s National Skills Strategy (NSS) aims to shift the standard of conventional TVET to skill-based and demand driven from time-bound and supply led training in Pakistan. To attain this, National Vocational & Technical Training Commission (NAVTTC) in association with Provincial Technical Education & Vocational Training Authorities (TEVTAs) develop Skill Standards, Programmes and other Instructional Material for introduction of skill based training in Pakistan.
Competency Based Training and Assessment (CBT & A) is introduced jointly by NAVTTC, Punjab Vocational Training Council (PVTC), Technical Education & Vocational Training Authorities (TEVTAs), Trade Testing Boards (TTBs), Punjab Board of Technical Education and a number of private sectors across Pakistan in selected vocational trades.
The introduction of CBT& A is a vital element of National Skills Strategy (NSS), which is the foundation of the on-going TVET sector change in Pakistan. It also provides the foundation for implementation of National Vocational Qualifications Framework (NVQF).
- Are concentrated on aptitudes, learning, comprehension and states of mind/values.
- Describe detectable, obvious and assessable execution.
- Are more extensive in degree than an insignificant rundown of particular undertakings or abilities.
- Enable the learners to get capabilities, which are perceived by the business everywhere throughout the nation through competency models set under NVQF.
- Offer more prominent plan of employability to the learners.
- Enable the casual gifted labourers to get their aptitudes evaluated and ensured through acknowledgment of earlier learning and current abilities.
- Involve industry at every stage of learning and development, from making of Competency Standards to Development of Curriculum (DACUM) formulation and from deciding means of assessment to the qualification evaluation.
- Allow adaptability in the development of learners starting with one organization then onto the next.
In a traditional educational system (followed mostly in Pakistan), the unit of progression is time and it is educator-focused. In a competency based training (CBT) framework, the unit of progression is dominance of particular information and aptitudes and is learner-focused. Two key terms utilized in competency-based preparing are:
style – an errand or gathering of undertakings performed to a particular dimension of competency or capability which regularly utilize motor functions and normally require the control of instruments and equipment. A few abilities, in any case, for example, guiding, are learning and state of mind based.
Competency – a skill performed to a particular standard under particular conditions (Sullivan & McIntosh, 1996).
While customary, time-based ways to deal with instruction have met with fluctuating dimensions of progress throughout the years, it is an ineffective framework when the objective is to prepare people to perform particular tasks. It gives off an impression for competency-based training. Norton trusts that competency-based preparing ought to be utilized rather than the “medieval idea of time-based learning”. An equipped clinician is one who can demonstrate clinical expertise to a set standard. Competency-constructed preparing depends on the member’s capacity to show accomplishment or dominance of clinical abilities performed under specific conditions to particular principles (the aptitudes at that point moved toward becoming capabilities). Five fundamental components of a CBT framework as depicted by Norton (1987) are:
- Competencies to be accomplished are carefully distinguished, checked and made open ahead of time for public (for all stakeholders including industry, training providers and instructional staff, current and potential trainees).
- Criteria to be utilized in evaluating accomplishment and the conditions under which accomplishment and achievements are stakeholders. assessed are also unequivocally expressed and made open ahead of time for public and all
- The approved instructional programme under the CBT framework accommodates the individual advancement, learning and assessment against all competencies.
- Assessment of competency considers the participants’ learning through their knowledge, skills and attitude yet it requires the consistent execution of the competency as essential evidence.
- Participants advance their learning throughout the instructional programme at their very own pace by showing the fulfillment of the predetermined skills and competencies.
Essential preferred standpoint of CBT is that the attention is on the accomplishment of every participant in accomplishing required skills and building confidence as they succeed in mastering particular competencies. Training time is utilized more proficiently and viably as the mentor is a facilitator of learning instead of a supplier of data. Additional preparation time is committed to working and assessing every participant exclusively or in little gatherings rather than giving lectures and general assessment.
While there are various points of interest of competency-based preparing, there additionally are some potential impediments. Before executing CBT at the undergrad or postgraduate dimension in Pakistan, it is vital to consider these confinements and suggestions:
- Unless introductory preparation and guidelines are provided to the trainers, there is a propensity to “teach as we were taught” and CBT mentors rapidly slip once more into the job of the conventional Mentors.
- A CBT course is just as viable as the procedure used to distinguish the abilities. Whenever practically zero consideration is given to recognizable proof of the basic aptitudes, at that point the subsequent instructional class is probably going to be incapable.
- A course might be named competency-based, yet except if particular CBT materials and preparing approaches (e.g. learning-aides, agendas and instructing) are intended to be utilized as a major aspect of a CBT approach, it is impossible that the subsequent course will truly be competency-based.
- Organizations must be focused on giving sufficient assets and preparing materials.
Audio-visual materials should be specifically identified with the composed materials and preparing exercises need to coordinate the Goals.
- Continuous member connection and feedback must occur.
- Trainers must be prepared to conduct competency-based instructional classes and members going to prepare must be set up for CBT as this methodology is probably going to be altogether different from their past instructive and training experiences.
3 TVET Reform Support Programme in Pakistan
Pakistan’s Technical and Vocational Education & Training (TVET) framework has shown the reasonable and rational presence for its strong existence in the country against various challenges including the access, quality, equivalence and relevance. Every year 2.4 million youngsters are added in the job market, whereas the current training opportunities are very low to meet the number. The beginning of the year 2015 showed only 476,850 places accessible in formal TVET through the nationwide 3,581 organizations and training providers. Aside from this, there is the confusion among interest and supply even quality and the importance of the preparation conveyed isn’t as indicated by the requests of the job market while there is constrained collaboration between general society and private segment as well as the TVET administration and conveyance. To enhance the access, quality, equivalence and relevance of TVET, the Government of Pakistan has left upon an exhaustive change in 2011 with the help of the European Union and the Embassy of the Germany, Netherlands and Norway. The main period of the change, which depends on the National Skills Strategy (NSS), has finished in December 2016. Key achievements attained during this period include the formulation of the National TVET Policy, the creation of National Vocational Qualifications Framework (NVQF) for the first time and the launch of Competency Based Training and Assessment (CBT&A). The second period of the TVET Sector Support Program (TVET SSP) has been started from January 2017 for an additional five years with the continuous support of the European Union, the Federal Republic of Germany and the Royal Norwegian Embassy. The TVET reform programme in Pakistan is included among the biggest TVET reformation considering the amount of funds, consideration and input being given.
3.1 Current Situation of TVET in Pakistan
Pakistan is one classical example of countries which are rich in resources yet struggling to formulate, coordinate and execute policy actions in order to yield maximum potential from the current and prospective industrial structures and output. This becomes more critical in the technical and specialized sectors. The country faces a visible skill gap which is constantly widening with passing time despite the contemporary growth of the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) sector during the last decade.
Figure 1: Comparative Analysis of TVET sector 2016-2017
This significant gap is highly contributing towards lack of skills and unemployment resulting in frustration and hopelessness among the youth as well as industry itself. The existence of Supply led TVET instead of a Demand driven TVET in current scenario is responsible for non-availability of the potential workforce and scarcity of required skills and competencies. Despite the fact that TVET sector possesses the greatest potential in Pakistan, considering the massive bulk of youth in its population pyramid, the country is still struggling to develop a mature TVET that enables addressing challenges of narrowing the skills gaps and eliminating poverty by means of creating skills & competencies based employment opportunities. The negative perception associated with TVET adds more to the problem. This serves as major disabling factors and a hurdle in the way of policy and decision makers resulting in decline of supplying a competent and skilled labour force to industry. It also affects the macro level identity of the TVET sector, making it inferior in comparison to the general education system. It is unfortunate that both the public and private sector stakeholders have not been successful to highlight the advantages and vital need for producing skilled labour as well as enabling the youth for availing income generation opportunities, in Pakistan and abroad. The poor contribution and consideration of policy makers and government authorities towards TVET is evident through insufficient resources and infrastructure with limited or no funds for capacity building of teachers, up-gradation of the curriculum, and availability of adequate technical equipment at minimum level required for skill development. This paper portrays and highlights key information and critical analysis of TVET sector in Pakistan. Currently, the proportion of (15-29) year population is around 28% with Male 51% and female 49% at annual growth rate of 1.8%. This provides huge youth bulge whose potential can be harnessed by utilizing in formal education system and TVET sector. There are 3581 (technical: 934 & vocational: 2,647) public & private TVET institutions are found in Pakistan with annual supply of skilled labour force of 314,176 (DAE: 81,836 & Trade certificate: 232,340) to labour market. This is pertinent to mention that the number of private vocational TVET institutions is much higher than the public owned institutions. However, the contribution of private institutions is only 11% in technical skills whereas the share of vocational trade in skilled workforce is around 55%. As per the statistics, 58% TVET institution buildings were found satisfactory while only 10% were ranked as not satisfactory. The internet facility is essential for TVET institutions for the purpose of online library repository, low cost institutional reporting, managing Provincial TVETA’s M&E system and other technology initiatives. The survey statistics demonstrates that majority of TVET institutions (99.3%) have internet access in Punjab, followed by Islamabad 90.5%, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) 76.3%, Sindh 31.8%, Baluchistan 24.5%, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) 31.8%, Federally Administrative Tribal Area (FATA) 30.3%, and Gilgit Baltistan (GB) 12.3% being the lowest internet access region. The presence of first aid kit is important in TVET institutions for provision of on-spot emergency relief to faculty and learners. This is less encouraging as majority of the TVET institutions have functional first-aid kit. Punjab tops with 46% followed by Sindh 19.7%, FATA 11.4%, AJK 10.6%, Islamabad 6.9%, and non-existent in Baluchistan institutes. Almost 95% of TVET institutes does not have access to drinking water facility within its campuses and deals shortage by generating electricity through generators. The diagnostics of this critical study will facilitate the policy makers at the federal and provincial level, training institutions and other TVET stakeholders in the formulation of evident based decisions resulting in designing and implementation of need based training system to bridge skill gaps in the country.(Syed Asghar Shah, 2018)
3.2 TVET and Beauty Sektor on Pakistan
Since the initiation of TVET reforms and commencement of CBT in Pakistan, the Beauty sector has always been a key area of focus. It is among the fewer trades that got an earlier attention. The obvious reason is the high popularity among trainees and this is evident from the statistical analysis of trade wise enrolment in vocational education in Pakistan. Punjab province, being the largest in population and comparatively more developed shows Beautician as the top most vocational area with 8788 trainees (4378 in public sector and 4410 in private training institutes), whereas, the Beautician is the second most popular trade in Sindh province with 2360 total trainees (865 in public sector and 1495 in the private sector).(Syed Asghar Shah, 2018)
Melange Institute & Beauty Lounge (Project of STEP) is proud to be the pioneer institute in Pakistan to offer CBT programmes. The institute was established in November 2011, under guidance and accreditation of UK and Pakistani awarding bodies and group of practitioners with the prime objective of providing global competencies locally. The name ‘Mélange’ itself defines its indefinite creative combination of art, design, beauty, style, counselling and education.
With the emergence of the CBT programme applications, the landscape of the Beauty Sector programmes changed with more responsibilities on part of the training provider institutes as well as the trainers. The understanding of essence of the CBT approach required not just addition into knowledge & understanding of the training providers but it demanded a paradigm shift. Besides the conceptual understanding of the very system, the new curriculum and expected gains from suggested training content definitely requires an advanced sector knowledge and upgraded set of skills for assessors and instructional staff to meet the new market trends. A quick comparison between the conventional and contemporary programme structure, training objectives and potential career opportunities could give a bird eye view of the dominating gap of technical and conceptual skills between the two.
4 General aspects CBT training system in comparison with the traditional training in Beauty Sector
Traditionally, a Six Month Beautician training course has been offered that aimed to emphasis the ability of the trainee to perform as a confident and competent Beautician. The course was suggested to be spread over six days a week to ensure practice in the gap time to ensure complete proficiency in the field.
The training objectives of this traditional Beautician course were laid as follow:
- Develop proficient demeanour and information of Hair and Skin Care, Manicure, Pedicure, Beauty medications contains casual makeup, party cosmetics and bridal cosmetics, creation of eye foreheads, eye lashes, facial and skin medicines, henna applications, massage and hair styling systems and techniques.
- Learn the necessary theoretical knowledge imparted along with work ethics awareness in order to produce capable and skilful workforce as per prevailing market demand and self-employed members of the Society.
- Understand and attain appropriate aptitude and information to guarantee appropriate security measures in beauty salons with emphasis on fitness and diet for good look.
Trainees were prepared to join existing beauty salons, build up their own salons, groom themselves at their home, join appropriate associations and organisations like the Airline sector, Show Business and so on, where chances of female employment are relatively higher.
4.1 The Competency Based Training (CBT) Programme in Beauty Sector:
The contemporary and new training courses in Beauty Sector greatly emphasized the up-gradation of skills and understanding at both the conceptual and professional levels. Competency based training (CBT) is a way of education that emphasis on what the learner can attain in the organization after graduating a course. Competency based training is ideally not time based. It allows learner to move on to the next level once they have attained the required competencies, resulting in a freedom for learners to complete the training at their own pace. This meant a complete shift of conceptual and practical perspectives from traditional system to the new globally tested and recognized Approach.
The proposed training programme (in the year 2014) is made out of 10 modules that are recommended to be studied in 800 hours. It is suggested that the course is delivered in a six-month term (with training extended more than five days in a week). Training can likewise be planned on part time basis or in form of evening classes.
This training programme is conceived with the basic idea of enabling trainees to learn and excel in the Beauty Industry. Learners attain the capacity to give excellent beauty therapy treatment benefits on current lines utilizing the most recent techniques in an expert way. Not only will it create jobs but it will expedite entrepreneurial opportunities and will essentially add to the nation’s economic development.
The training objectives are:
- To give quality preparing to those looking for a vocation as expert beauty specialist, makeup artist, hair Stylist.
- To present the way of life of protected, spotless, sound and charming condition at instructional labs and working environments identified with beauty salons.
- To upgrade the financial and economic opportunities for prospective beauticians.
- To give enhanced administrations to the regularly expanding beautician customer.
- To create comprehension of the essential standards, properties and utilization of different sorts of beauty care products and their impact on the skin.
- To teach how to set up a beauty parlour, how to manage it for maximum utilisation.
- To train the learners the consideration and beautification of the body and hair.
- To give essential learning of setting up and administration of beauty salon and finishing school.
- To give essential learning of ethics and attitudes.
4.2 Opportunities für Trainees after completion of the CBT based Beautx Therapy Training:
Various opportunities of the CBT based Beauty Therapy programme at Level 2 enable trainees to opt their careers as an expert Beautician, Beauty Therapist, Salon Manager, or an Entrepreneur in the beauty sector. With the gained skills and competencies, graduates can also perform as Assessor and Programme Managers in the Beauty sector institutions. Various supervisory level roles are also open to graduates including supervisor in hair dressing and styling shops, supervisor in beauty salons, supervisor for promotion of sales of beauty products and equipment, or any other administrative and front desk job within the beauty industry. Furthermore the graduates could also establish their own beauty salons or they can work from home too.
5 Need of enhancing Technical Didactics for effective Training in Beauty Sector in Pakistan
Although the detailed training curriculum, objectives and career options are comprehensively laid down in the new CBT programme, there exists the implementation gap. The country used to be alienated from the CBT approach of TVET but with remarkable and unprecedented achievements of reformation, the TVET system based on CBT approach is still in process of full adoption. The direction is correctly defined at national level of policy making (by NAVTTC) and its application by provincial TEVTAs, yet we face major challenges in trainers and instructional staff’ capacity building and require advanced set of industry skills. The current NVQF (National Vocational Qualification Framework) in Pakistan lacks continuity of training. Qualification packages at all levels (Level 1 – Level 5) are not yet available. This lack of horizontal and vertical progression restricts the training advancement opportunities both for trainees as well as trainers. The factor of ‘self-pace of learning’ without being time bounded has also been compromised for prudent reasons. The extremely high targets of youth training for employment stays at top of list among others, including inadequate resources (human as well as material). Although the CBT programmes tend to engage trainers and assessors for a better understanding and knowledge of specific trades but the expected impact remains restricted.
In order to tackle these issues, the apex body (NAVTTC Pakistan), implementing bodies (provincial TEVTAs) and facilitating partner organisations (GIZ) are taking considerable interventions. The training content and already developed competency standards for Beauty Therapy level 2 programme (developed in 2014) is recently revised. A new DACUM is in phase of finalization to develop level 2, level 3 and level 4 qualifications in Beauty sector. The proposition is to offer Beauty Therapy Level 3 to those who have mastered the level 2 and are fully aware of the related products and services to enable them for a senior level progression. Beauty Therapy Level 4 is planned to be developed for both men and women and should be offered as an expert level. Ideally, learners will be capable enough to handle the various technical practices and use advanced technical equipment required for treatments in Beauty Therapy, Hair Styling and Skin Care.
The augmentation of the contemporary teaching and training practices by enhancing the technical didactics will greatly help this transactional phase. Assessors and instructional staff once familiarised with technical didactics specific to the field will be able to enable trainees to exceed learning horizons and to grasp excellent opportunities of career advancement. It will provide strong basis of effective implementation of a demand driven TVET in current scenario. A focus on technical didactics is most required in the current transaction phase as it promises an identification of advance set of skills required and expected by the modern Industry.
5.1 Conception of Technical Didactic Trainings at Melangé Institute, STEP:
STEP, being the parent body of Melange Institute & Beauty Lounge has been providing the vocational training and management consultancy in Pakistan since 2003. It shares expertise by working collaboratively with prestigious organizations including GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit), Pearson (Edexcel, UK), Warnborough College Ireland and Australia Awards Pakistan. Being among the pioneers of CBT providers in Pakistan and the implementer of Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) since 2003, it has been performing multiple roles at national level to promote and reform TVET sector in Pakistan. The senior staff and trainers at Melange Institute have actively supported the National and Vocational Technical Training Commission (NAVTTC) Pakistan and Punjab Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority (PTEVTA) during the last decade by participating in training for DACUMs formulation, Competency Standards, Curriculum, Teaching Learning Material (TLM) and Assessment packages for several qualifications. TVET awareness is being created by conducting Training of Assessors, Training of Principals & Institute Heads and Training of Staff from all over Pakistan. Two trainers were the part of the distinguished delegate from Pakistan to study a short course in Australia last year, namely: “Supporting the Strengthening of TVET: Policy and Management” at the Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, which was sponsored by the Australian government through Australia Awards Pakistan.
Considering the gaps of technical knowledge and understanding of industry and client requirements, the Australia Awards Pakistan accepted a short term project proposal (under its Small Grant Scheme, May 2018) for conducting four training workshops; two in Beauty Therapy sector and the others in Dress Making sector. This six-month project aims to train one hundred assessors/ instructional staff from the Punjab province.
A one and a half month long detailed training need analysis exercise was conducted to clearly list the gaps between existing and required competencies and to identify required technical didactics for teaching a level 2 diploma in Beauty Therapy and the other trade.
Training Need Analysis (TNA) address the crucial issue of what needs to be included in the training package. It is the way toward distinguishing and identifying the gap between on-going employees’ training and the needs of further enhancing training. Training need analysis is the main stage in initiating the training procedure and includes a system to decide if training will in fact address the issue which has been recognized. Since training can be depicted as the acquisition of skills, ideas or attitude that result in enhanced execution within the job environment, TNA is regularly utilized as a component of the system development process. The TNA process for proposed training was accomplished after consulting key stakeholders including admin and instructional staff from public and private sector training providers, implementers and governing agencies including the Punjab Technical Education &Vocational Training Authority, Punjab Vocational Training Council (PVTC), Faculty of Hair & Beauty at Melange Institute and few other private sector Institutes.
Based on this training need assessment, an initial TOT (training of our trainers) was conducted in consultation with industry practitioners and consultants to add technical didactics for augmenting the current CBT system being followed. The ten-day training workshops was held in the Institute‘s equipped and functional training venues at Melange Institute & Beauty Lounge; 93, B III, Gulberg III, Lahore.One important expected outcome of these trainings is to cascade the model by directing the initial one hundred trained staff to further train their fellow assessors and instructional staff at their institutions after receiving the training. Recognition and award ceremony is planned to be held to acknowledge the successful participants at the end of this six-month Project.
5.2 Identification o key technical didactics suggested in the Training:
The training content is compiled after careful consideration of the areas suggested and recorded in the recent attempt to formulate a new DACUM. Industry professionals and beauty experts were consulted as well as the engagement of dermatologists’ and laser specialists, who are experts and dealing within cosmetology, dermatology & medical nutrition clinics. Vendors of highly specialised machines and equipment were consulted too. The results of the TNA as identified by senior instructional staff have also been closely reviewed while suggesting the key didactics in the sector. One core objective of this Teachers Training project was to identify and implement the industry related didactics for the Beauty sector teachers at both theoretical as well as practical level. The TNA also suggested that generally teachers lack a sound knowledge and understanding of modern and technical equipment in the Beauty sector. This was felt with more intensity in the public sector training providers where a lot of technical equipment and machines are not even used because the trainers were not fully equipped and trained. The scope of training covers the addition of these technical competencies for teachers along with incorporation of basic concepts from dermatology since it was found out that essential knowledge of skin and hair types must be the part of Training.
The ten days training workshop titled “Skills and Gap Training of Beautician as per Industry Standards” aims to cater to following training objectives:
- Develop technical skills which are required to become a professional Beautician.
- Educate trainees to become a competent Beauty Therapist.
- Develop the knowledge, understanding and attitude of an expert Beautician in accordance with the demand of Industry.
- Professionally perform and be competent in major areas: Hair & Skin care, Make up and learn theoretical as well as practical knowledge of major parts of the beauty sector.
- Equip trainees with skills relating to the safety methods, measures and procedures.
- Work ethically and able to develop soft skills among learners, specially the ethical considerations.
The training content are designed to meet the expectations of contemporary industry practices and demands as well as knowledge and skills gaps among instructional staff identified in the TNA process. Practical demonstration and application of technical equipment along with theoretical learning, lecturing and discussions between trainer and trainees must be emphasised. Following contents are included for enhancing the theoretical and practical understanding of Trainees.
- Brainstorming of highly industry demanded areas in Beauty sector;
- Make appointments of real client maintain clients’ records;
- Perform exfoliation;
- Massage techniques and strokes including Head Massage and Reflexology;
- Perform the non-manual facial treatments (including High frequency, Vacuum suction, Galvanic and Micro current);
- Perform pigmentation Treatment;
- Perform Manicure and Pedicure at an expert Level;
- Perform Nail Art techniques (including Stamping, Dotting, Stencilling, Stickering);
- Perform different types of Make ups professionally at an expert Level;
- Make trendy and newly demanded Hair Styling with finishing (including different forms of buns, half up-half down hair styling);
- Apply different colour techniques on hair according to the requirement of client (including low lights, high lights, baby lights);
- Perform professional Hair Cutting techniques at an expert level;
- Develop a general concept of entrepreneurship;
- Maintain stock record of the institute;
- Maintain personal and workplace hygiene at an expert level;
- Follow occupational health and safety procedures (especially required for the technical applications and processes);
- Evaluation of overall learning and development during the training.
Incorporating contemporary market demands and practices in training content:
As indicated in the above content, focus is to be given on imparting maximum technical practices, procedures and treatments as required by market trends and industry professionals including the following. These processes are added in the training content for familiarising trainees with both their theoretical significance and practical applications. A lot of these processes are completely new to the public sector instructional staff where they are still mostly following the out-dated manual processes. It is vital for training providers to develop these technical skills among trainees in order for them to gain maximum employment and entrepreneurial opportunities and it is believed that their didactic understanding will enable teachers to meet the purpose.
The average beauty therapist opts for the usual scrubbing whereas Exfoliation is highly required and expected considering the current customers’ demands and market practices. A normal scrub only eliminates dead skin cells, whereas exfoliating scrub removes the oldest layer of dead skin cells. The practical demonstration and ‘learning by doing approach’ will enable trainees to master the practice.
Reflexology, generally taken as a component of massage, is actually not a type of massage. It’s a different practice that applies weight to reflex zones on a person’s feet, hands or external ears to affect the whole body. A practical and hands on training approach will familiarise trainees on this highly demanded procedure.
The electrical facial is a non-intrusive, torment free treatment that utilizes a two dimensional gadget to convey electrical flow to the skin. The measure of power conveyed is protected; it coordinates the body’s very own characteristic current and works in accord with the body. Sounds too technical but highly in demand and easy to be learnt once practised under controlled supervision. Majority of Pakistani beauticians still prefer applying the manual forms of facials despite the high demands of the following technical electrical facials.
- High Frequency
- Micro Current
- Vacuum Suction
High Frequency Facial:
High recurrence is extraordinary for skin break out, imperfect and blocked skin, yet it is likewise useful for developing and maturing skin as it has a fixing impact on the skin, so can be utilized as an anti-aging treatment. The technique has proven great to treat acne of several types. High recurrence utilizes a particular oxidizing cream, which eliminates microscopic organisms. Not only the technical jargon but a clearer understanding of its application is required by expert beauticians.
The Galvanic treatment is regularly done by utilizing a roller over the skin with the use of specific gels/serums or ampoules. It is exceptionally successful with astounding outcomes. However, the understanding and usage of technical equipment is mandatory for advanced practitioners in beauty sector.
Micro current Facial:
Micro current treatment is also type of popularly demanded electrical facial, intended to mellow barely recognizable differences and wrinkles, along these lines adjusting and lifting the forms of the face. The treatment is best conveyed over a course of 10-12 medications and it practices facial muscles with practically zero sensation felt. The theoretical as well as practical familiarity and usage experience is highly required for beauty therapists or skin care experts.
Vacuum suction is perfect for drowsy skin, dark circles and sacks or puffiness under the eyes. It enhances the lymphatic seepage of facial skin and expels the development of poisons in the skin enhancing blood course. Both the theoretical as well as practical familiarity and usage are highly required to perform this electrical facial.
Derma Abrasion is a shedding method that utilizes a turning instrument to evacuate the external layers of skin, as a rule on the face. A portion of the conditions it can treat incorporate scarce differences, sun harm, skin break out scars, and uneven Surface.
Micro derma Abrasion:
Micro derma abrasion medications utilize an insignificantly grating instrument to delicately sand the skin, expelling its thicker, uneven external layer. This sort of skin revival is utilized to treat light scarring, staining, sun harm and stretch imprints. Both the theoretical as well as practical knowledge and understanding is required from expert beauticians.
Nail craftsmanship is an imaginative method to paint, improve, upgrade, and adorn the nails. It is a sort of fine art that should be possible on fingernails and toenails, for the most part after nail treatments or pedicures. Nail art is currently highly in demand and fewer beauty experts understand the process and technical application. The most significant and popular techniques of Nail Art that expert beauticians need to know include the following.
Nail stamping procedure involves incorporating the picture, which is to be imprinted on the nail, to be protected by the short layer of exceptional nail paints in the picture plate.
Dotting tool is perhaps one of the most useful and popular tools in any nail art kit. At any stage of learning, from beginner level to advanced, the set of multi-sized dotters serve the artist very well from simple polka dot patterns to complex design motifs.
Stencils are embedded on the dry layer of nail clean and go about as the foundation for the picture of the stencil. The stencil is then put entirely against the nails to get the desired print.
Craftsmanship stickers and decals are new creative approaches to adorn nails wonderfully. There is lesser exertion nearly, to be done in this procedure fundamentally due to accessibility of good assortment of these stickers and decals in the market.
The latest hair styles which are high in demand in market will also be part of this technical training including the Updo hair styling, half up Half down, and various forms of Buns. The technical side of theory and practical implication of Hair Colour Dyes will add augmentation for professional hair stylist. Popular Hair colour techniques include Low lights. It involves darkening strands of hair by using colours that are darker than your natural colour. High lights, in contrast use colours that are lighter than your natural shade.
Teaching of Entrepreneurship models:
The limit and ability to create, run and deal with a business adventure alongside any of its dangers with the end goal to make a benefit. The most evident precedent and widely common form of entrepreneurship in context of beauty sector is the starting of new salon. Although a basic knowledge about entrepreneurship is part of the CBT curriculum at level 2, the need of detailed conceptual understanding, theoretical frameworks, and contextualisation with Pakistani market are highly important factors that should be at the centre stage of vocational learning. The Pakistani beauty sector context of vocational training highly emphasise on addressing the Upper-Middle, Middle-Middle and Lower-Middle social classes segment and therefore, the concept of Entrepreneurship needs relevance with available funds and investment that is feasible as well as profitable for beauty experts with a clear understanding of market strategies.
Two training workshops with twenty five trainees in each of these shall be executed to include the instructional and teaching staff from both public and private sectors.
In term of teaching Methods , training methodologies and adult learning styles were part of the initial TOT (Training of Trainers) stage where it is recommended that interactive and action oriented teaching styles shall be used during the training. Trainers were also encouraged to get learners feedback during and after every training session, which is comprised of approximately two and half to three hours. This shall keep the momentum and interest of trainees for their engagement and active learning throughout the whole course of training. Practical demonstration from trainees in small group of four to five members shall enable the trainers to assess the level of learning among trainees. One training day shall involve two to three sessions with different trainers to help sustaining trainees’ interest and allow trainers to maximise effectiveness of their training sessions.
In term of assessment, both formative and summative assessments are designed considering the requirements of CBT programme. The training contents and teaching methods are designed to cover a range of competencies that allow trainees to understand and be able to demonstrate the three CBT&A dimensions: Knowledge, Skills and Attitude. Various formative assessments are planned at end of each training session. These include oral questioning and viva, multiple choice written quizzes and practical demonstration in group of four to five members. Some assessments are planned to be closely supervised in a controlled environment since these require comparatively higher level of technology usage and consequently, higher level of risk. Trainees will be required to present an individual practical demonstration and presentation on the last day as part of their summative assessment. Each participant will perform designated thematic make-up and hair styling either on themselves or on their models. The team of assessors along with the Head of Faculty will comprise panel of jury to evaluate and provide feedback to trainees after their final presentations.
5.3 Some results of the trainingwith CBT-oriented tecnical didactics:
5.3.1 Training Feedback Analysis Report
The two training cohorts comprising twenty-five participants each were successfully held during the months of December 2018 and January 2019. The overall feedback and participants reactions were very positive. A social media forum was created for participants to stay connected with each other including the trainers. The final individual thematic demonstrations and presentations by each trainee were attended by the faculty as well as trainers. Both the verbal as well as written feedback from trainees was very encouraging and the training experience was considered unique by them. The feedback form was divided into two parts: Course evaluation and trainers’ evaluation. Suggestions were collected from the trainees whereas some challenges were also identified during the course of these training exercises. In the following is part of the feedback analysis being done for the first cohort of Beauty Therapy trade.
Following points were identified from the skill gap analysis for Beauty Therapy trade. The Quality Assurance (QA) team was engaged to ensure that all training objectives are met through smooth execution of all scheduled teaching and assessment activities and continuous availability of technical and human resources is provided. Meeting industry requirements, following technical didactics and teaching contemporary technical practices remained the prime focus of all training sessions. Emphasis was given on all high priority areas observed during the TNA stage, stated below in table 1.
Table 1: High priority areas observed in TNA
High Priority Area
Medium Priority Area
Low Priority Area
Perform pigmentation treatment
Perform nail art
Perform stone therapy massage
Perform acne treatment
Perform whitening facial
Prepare marketing record
Perform aging/wrinkled skin
Massage techniques and strokes
Perform body art
Perform hair treatments
Maintain stock record
Make appointments and promote products and services
Perform basic treatment and
Course Evaluation synopsis of the feedback from participants of first training cohort showed high ratings with majority of participants marking ‘Highly Satisfied‘ in all answers of this part of feedback. The following figure 2 explains it.
Figure 2: Course evaluation feedback Chart
It is encouraging to note that trainees were highly satisfied by the training content delivered. Good training environment was provided by highly skilled and experienced trainers having knowledge about industry demand and its importance. This part of feedback also revealed that trainees obtained knowledge and hands on experience by doing practical demonstration specifically while performing various electrotherapy/acne treatments. Major areas covered during this training were performing acne treatment, perform facial, perform hair treatment and perform makeup. This training was successfully delivered according to industry requirement and met trainees’ expectations.
Trainers Evaluation part is also interesting to note. The below figure 3 indicates the overall trainees‘ positive feedback about trainers as competent, experienced and well equipped with skills, having vast knowledge and grip over their subject areas.
Figure 3: Trainees’ evaluation feedback Chart
Being subject specialists, trainers delivered all their designated training sessions professionally and enthusiastically. Their positive attitude and support motivated the trainees to easily grasp the knowledge being delivered and learn the rather technical subject matter easily.
Overall, trainees were quite happy with the Trainers and Management. According to the feedback, trainers were subject specialists and delivered the best of their knowledge through teaching and practically demonstrating. They exhibited a positive and friendly behavior towards trainees and motivated them in learning through hands-on experience. Some participants compared this training with other trainings that they have attended in Pakistan and rated this training as the best one, which is very motivating.
Trainees suggested such trainings should be frequently conducted to help them refresh and upgrade their knowledge, skills and general teaching practices. Some trainees from other cities requested to conduct these trainings in other cities too. Another suggestion was to cut down the course content and divide it into several trainings or increase training days to enable participants getting more time for practice during the Training.
Beside the overall positive feedback, there were also some challenging areas on part of few participants. Issues like punctuality and observing frequent short leaves during training time were the initial challenges. The relatively compressed training duration also became a hurdle in the beginning as few trainees got tired of long training hours. The revised methodology and change in sequence of theoretical lectures helped in resolving this issue. Some of the trainees did not have much working experiences and they lacked subject specialists skills. Some of them didn’t even know how to operate machines as they were trained on hand/self-operated machines. This factor shall be kept in mind while planning the next training activities.
Focusing on adding the theoretical knowledge and practical understanding of technical areas, along with extension of learning the contemporary market practices have been the primary objective for the proposed training. The major idea is to upgrade and upscale the existing knowledge of assessors and instructional staff for adhering to technical didactics in the beauty sector. The need to stress and strengthen these didactics become even vital when the development of TVET qualifications are in transaction and highly competent assessors with strong understanding of these technical didactics are needed. Like many other developing countries, Pakistan does not have formal and conventional TVET and higher education route available for the beauty sector and therefore, training courses like the suggested one, with the clear focus of technical didactics serve as a useful way for effective implementation of TVET. Since this would serve as a pilot training venture, the management will be more conscious of the lessons learnt during the first phase of implementation.
As an incredible instrument of learning, feedback should contain assignment related data and restorative guidance to persuade and fabricate learners’ confidence towards the accomplishment of their expert abilities. There is frail industry-foundation linkage and also low quality of evaluation in CBT usage despite the fact that CBT must be industry-centred with dependable appraisal techniques with the end goal to deliver capable workforce in a developing worldwide economy. Moreover, the identification of the gaps became the basis of developing this training. They are scrutinised in context of the CBT background. The suggested didactics highlighted the competencies that an expert beautician will need to exhibit at workplace. Therefore it will complement the TVET system and the CBT approach. Action oriented trainees’ participation and interactive training sessions with more than one trainer in a day, together with repetitive feedback from trainees will help in improving the learning experiences in future training activities.
The proposed training on developing the technical didactics and extension of learning with the contemporary market practices can yield effective understanding, knowledge and practical familiarity to the instructional staff in Beauty sector and with close review and evaluation, similar interventions can be made for other vocational areas as well in order to enhance the effectiveness of TVET implementation.
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